As I do in the classroom, I find that one of the most helpful resources (free too) for students and myself is the OWL at Purdue.
That being said, let’s turn to the OWL at Purdue
Of course, I have guided us to the MLA formatting aspect of the site, because this is the format we are dealing with. However, be aware that the OWL at Purdue does have helpful information and resources for you if, in other courses, you use APA and some Chicago Manual.
In fact, what I consider to be one the most broad and compellingly useful sources I can recommend my students to download and keep (because it applies to my courses, to students perhaps previous experiences with other formats, and potentially their need to understand MLA, APA, and CMS [Chicago Manual Style] in other courses) is the Citation Style Chart.
CITATION STYLE CHART
This document is located on the front page here, just above the General Format section
By clicking on the “see the Citation Style Chart” one is taken to a page where one can preview the document…
…as well as view and download it.
It is basically 11 pages of side-by-side comparison (a kind of comparison table) showing you what and how to properly cite both in a Works Cited (for MLA) and in-text citations for all kinds of different types of sources one might encounter.
Here is an up close look at what it provides you with:
I have found that this kind of information is useful for students both in my classroom and beyond. In addition, it allows you to use, let’s say previous experience with APA, and translate how to reformat that material for the MLA I have students work with.
Here it is as well: Citation Style Sheet PDF
Here is an Example of one of my Works Cited (Reference page because it was part of my dissertation).
Andrae, Thomas. “From Menace to Messiah: The History and Historicity of Superman.” Discourse 2 (1980): 124-38. Print.
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics. 2nd ed. Trans. H. Rackham. Cambridge: Leob Classic Library, 1934. Print.
—. The Poetics. Trans. Ingram Bywater. New York: The Modern Library, 1984. Print.
—. The Rhetoric. Trans. W. Rhys Roberts. New York: The Modern Library, 1984. Print.
Arnaudo, Marco. The Myth of the Superhero. Tran. Jamie Richards. Baltimore: The John Hopkins UP, 2013. Print.
Avineri, Shiomo and Avener-de Shalit. Eds. Communitarianism and Individualism. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1992. Print.
Bakhtin, Mikhail. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Trans. Michael Holist and Caryl Emerson. Austin: U of Texas P, 1982. Print.
Barthes, Roland. Elements of Semiology. Trans. Annette Lavers and Colin Smith. New York: Hill and Wang, 1964. Print.
—. Mythologies. Trans. Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang, 1972. Print.
Binder, Otto and Al Pastino. “The Supergirl from Krypton.” Superman in the Fifties. New York: DC Comics, 2002. 93-100. Print.
Borrowman, Shane and Marcia Kmetz. “Divided We Stand: Beyond Burkean Identification.” Rhetoric Review 30.3 (2011): 275-92. Print.
Bowra, C. M. Heroic Poetry. New York: St. Martin’s P, 1996. Print.
Brown, Lesley. “What Is ‘the mean relative to us’ in Aristotle’s ‘Ethics’?” Phronesis 42.1 (1997): 77-93. Print.
Brownie, Barabra and Danny Graydon. “Negotiating Ordinariness and Otherness: Superman, Clark Kent and the superhero masquerade.” Paper presented at 2nd Global Conference on The Graphic Novel, Oxford, United Kingdom. 2013. Researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk. U of Hertfordshire. 2013. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.
Burke, Kenneth. “Doing and Saying Thoughts on Myth, Cult, and Archetypes.” Salmagundi 15 (Winter 1971): 100-19. Print.
—. Grammar of Motives. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969. Print.
—. A Rhetoric of Motives. Berkeley: U of California P, 1969. Print.
—. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. Print.
Byrne, John. Man of Steel, Vol 1. New York: DC Comics, 2003. Print.
Campbell, Joseph. Hero With A Thousand Faces. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1968. Print.
—. Myths to Live By. New York: Bantam Books, 1972. Print.
—. and Michael Toms. An Open Life. Eds. John M. Maher and Dennie Briggs. New York: Harper Perennial, 1990. Print.
Carlyle, Thomas. Hero and Hero-Worship. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013. Print.
Castiglione, Baldassarre. The Book of the Courtier. New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1903. Print.
Cheney, Patrick and Fredrick A. de Armas. Ed. European Literary Careers: The Author from Antiquity to the Renaissance. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2002. Print.
Comic-Con: Episode IV. Dir. Morgan Spurlock. Perf. Eric Henson, Holly Conrad, Chuck Rozanski. Connepher Films. 2011. Film.
Cowsill, Alan et al. DC Comics: Year by Year A Visual Chronicle. New York: DK Publishing, 2010. Print.
Daniels, Les. Superman: The Complete History–the Life and Times of the Man of Steel. San Francisco: Chronicle, 1998. Print.
Darowski, Joseph J. Ed. The Ages of Superman: Essays on the Man of Steel in Changing Times. Jefferson: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2012. Print.
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Brothers Karamzov: A Novel in Four Parts with Epilogue. Trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990. 253. Print.
Duncan, Randy and Matthew J. Smith. The Power of Comics: History, Form and Culture. New York: Continuum, 2009. Print.
Eco, Umberto. “The Myth of Superman.” Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium. Eds. Jeet Heer and Kent Worcester. Jackson: U P of Mississippi, 2004. Print.
—. Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984. Print.
Eichengreen, Barry J. Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Print.
Eisner, Will. Comics and Sequential Art: Principles and Practices from the Legendary Cartoonist. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, 2008. Print.
Elizabeth I. “Enforcing Statutes of Apparel.” Elizabethan.org. 14 July 2001. Web. 26 July 2014.
Engle, Gary. “What Makes Superman So Darned American?” Virginia.edu. U of Virginia. Web. 2 July 2014.
Enos, Richard Leo. Greek Rhetoric Before Aristotle. Prospect Heights: Waveland P, Inc., 1993. Print.
Ess, Charles. “Liberal Arts and Distance Education: Can Socratic virtue (arete) and Confucius’ exemplary person (junzi) be taught online?” Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 2 (2003): 117-37. Print.
Finkelberg, Margalit. “‘Time’ and ‘arete’ in Homer.” The Classical Quarterly 48.1 (1998). Literature Resource Center. Web. 8 June 2014.
Fox, Robin Lane. The Search for Alexander. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1980. Print.
Frankel, Viktor E. Man’s Search for Meaning. Trans. Isle Lasch. Boston: Beacon P, 2006. Print.
Frentz, Thomas S. “Memory, Myth, and Rhetoric in Plato’s Phaedrus”. Rhetoric Society Quarterly 36.3 (Summer 2006): 243-63. Print.
Gaiman, Neil. American Gods. New York: Harper Touch, 2001. Print.
Goldsworthy, Adrian. Caesar: Life of a Colossus. New Haven: Yale UP, 2008. Print.
Gorgias. The Encomium of Helen. The Norton’s Anthology of Theory and Criticism 2nd
Ed. Leitch, et al. Eds. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 2001. 38-41. Print.
Gowler, David B. What are They Saying about the Parables?. Mahwah: Paulist P, 2000. Print.
Gross, Alan and Ray D. Dearin. Eds. Chaim Perelman. Albany: State U of New York P, 2003. Print.
Greenblatt, Stephen. Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2005. Print.
—. Will in the World: How Shakespeare Became Shakespeare. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2004. Print.
Guthrie, W. The Sophists. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1977. Print.
Hajdu, David. The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America. New York: Picador. 2008. Print
Hamilton, Edmond and Curt Swan. “Last Days of Superman.” Superman in the Sixties. New York: DC Comics, 1999. 89-104. Print.
—. “The Showdown between Luthor and Superman.” Superman in the Sixties. New York: DC Comics, 1999. 38-63. Print.
Harari, Roberto. Lacan’s Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis: An Introduction. New York: Other P, 2004. Print.
Hawhee, Debra. “Agonism and Arete.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 35.3 (2002): 185-207. Print.
Heer, Jeet and Kent Worcester. Eds. Arguing Comics: Literary Masters on a Popular Medium. Jackson: U P of Mississippi, 2004. Print.
Herbert, Frank. Children of Dune: Book Three in the DUNE Chronicles. New York: Ace Books, 1987. Print.
—. Dune: Book One in the DUNE Chronicles. New York: Ace Books, 1987. Print.
“History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web.” http://www.Historymatters.gmu.edu. American Social History Project / Center for Media and Learning (Graduate Center, CUNY) and the Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media (George Mason U). 17 Oct. 2014. Web. 22 Oct. 2014.
Homer. The Illiad. Trans. Ennis Rees. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005. Print.
—. The Odyssey. Trans. George Herbert Palmer. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005. Print.
Jenkins, Henry. “Just Men in Capes?” Henryjenkins.org. 15-17 Mar 2007. Web. 10 Nov 2013.
Johns, Geoff and Gary Frank. Superman: Secret Origin. New York: DC Comics, 2011. Print.
Johnson, Jeffrey K. Super-History: Comic Book Superheroes and American Society, 1938 to the Present. Jefferson: McFarland & Co., 2012. Print.
Johnstone, Christopher Lyle. “Sophistical Wisdom: Politike Arete and ‘Logosophia’.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 39.4 (2006): 265-89. Print.
Jung. Carl G. and M. –L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande Jacobi, Aniela Jaffe. Man and His Symbols. New York: Dell, 1964. Print.
Kieffer, John S. “Philoctetes and Arete.” Classical Philology 27.1 (1942): 38-50. Print.
Keohane, Nannerl O. “Self-Fashioning in Society and Solitude.” Harvard Magazine. Sept-Oct 2013. Harvardmagzine.com. 1-11. 23 Apr. 2014. Web. 28 June 2014.
“Key American Values.” International Student and Scholar Services. U of Missouri-St. Louis. Umsl.edu. Web. 3 Aug. 2014.
Kirk, Russell. “Virtue: Can It Be Taught?” Modern Age 26.3 (1982): 343-349. Print.
Kohl, Paul R. “The Struggle Within: Superman’s Difficult Transition into the Age of Relevance” The Ages of Superman: Essays on the Man of Steel in Changing Times. Joseph J. Darowski. Ed. Jefferson: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2012: 103-114. Print.
Lawrence, John and Robert Jewett. The Myth of the American Superhero. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2002. Print.
Liddell, H. G. and Robert Scott. English-Greek Lexicon. 9th Ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. Print.
Lis-Turlejska, M., A. Lusczczynska, A. Plichta, and C. C. Benight. “Jewish and non-Jewish World War II child and adolescent survivors at 60 years after war: effects of parental loss and age at exposure on well-being.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 78.3 (2008): 369-77. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. National Institutes of Health. 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2014.
Marche, Stephen “Why Superman Sucks.” Esquire.com. Esquire Magazine. 13 June 2013. Web. 28 June 2013.
Markovitz, Adam. “Why is every superhero movie an origin story?” Review of Man of Steel. Entertainment Weekly. 12 Dec. 2012. Web. 30 Sept. 2014.
Maslon, Laurence and Michael Kantor. Superheroes!: Capes, Cowls, and the Creation of Comic Book Culture. New York: Crown Archetype, 2013. Print.
McAuley, C. E. “Red Menace in the Mirror: Identity, Politics and Identity Politics in Superman Red Son.” Popmatters.com. 18 August 2009. Web. 18 March 2014.
McCloud, Scott. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. New York: HarperPerennial, 1994. Print.
McMillan, Graeme. “Why Superman Deserves More Respect.” Time Magazine. 21 Feb. 2013. Web. 13 July 2013.
Milchman, Alan and Alan Rosenberg. “The Aesthetic and Ascetic Dimensions of an Ethics of Self-Fashioning: Nietzsche and Foucault.” Parrhesia 2 (2007): 44-65. Print.
Millar, Mark, Dave Johnson and Kilian Plunkett. Superman: Red Son. New York: DC Comics, 2004. Print.
Moore, Alan and Curt Swan. Superman: Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?. New York: DC Comics, 2010. Print.
— and Dave Gibbons. Watchmen. New York: DC Comics, 1995. Print.
Morris, Tom and Matt Morris. Eds. Superheroes and Philosophy: Truth, Justice, and the Socratic Way. Chicago: Open Court, 2005. Print.
Morrison, Grant. Supergods: What Masked Vigilantes, Miraculous Mutants, and A Sun God from Smallville Can Teach Us About Being Human. New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2012. Print.
— and Frank Quitely. All-Star Superman. New York: DC Comics, 2010. Print.
—. Flex Mentallo: Man of Muscle Mystery Deluxe Edition. New York: DC Comics, 2012. Print.
Morson, Gary and Caryl Emerson. Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a Prosaics. Palo Alto: Standford UP, 1990. Print.
“Neal Adams: Neal With The Deal.” Nar. Kevin Smith and Neal Adams. Smodcast-Fatman on Batman #055. 3 Feb. 2014. Web. 5 May 2014.
O’Neil, Dennis and Neal Adams. Green Lantern #76. DC Showcase Presents Green Lantern. New York: DC Comics, 2011. 5-28. Print.
O’Neill, Patrick Daniel. “John Byrne: New Tomorrows for the Man of Steel.” Comic Scene 1 (1987): 6-9, 84. Print.
O’Rourke, Daniel J. and Morgan B. O’Rourke “‘It’s Moring Again in America’: John Byrne’s Re-Imagining of the Man of Steel.” The Ages of Superman: Essays on the Man of Steel in Changing Times. Joseph J. Darowski. Ed. Jefferson: McFarland & Co, Inc., 2012: 115-24. Print.
Palmer, Michael. “Machiavellian virtu and Thucydidean arete: Traditional Virtue and Political Wisdom in Thucydides.” The Review of Politics 51.3 (1989): 365-85. Print.
Parker, Sharon M.D. Superheroes and Superegos: Analyzing the Minds Behind the Masks. Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2009. Print.
Perelman, Chaim and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca. “Act and Person in Argument.” Ethics 61.4 (1951): 251-69. Print.
—. The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation. Tran. John Wilkinson and Purcell Weaver. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P. 1969. Print.
Perelman, Chaim. “How Do We Apply Reason to Values?” The Journal of Philosophy 52.26 (1955): 797-802. Print.
—. “The New Rhetoric: A Theory of Practical Reasoning.” Trans. E. Griffin-Collart and
Otto Bird. The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. Ed. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg. New York: Bedford, 2000. 1384-1409. Print.
—. The Realm of Rhetoric. Trans. William Kluback. Notre Dame: U of Notre Dame P, 1982. Print.
Plato. Protagoras. The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Ed. Edith Hamilton and Cairns Hamilton. Trans. W. K. C. Guthrie. New York: Pantheon Books, 1961. Print.
Plutarch. “Alexander.” Plutarch’s Lives. Trans. John Dryden. New York: Modern Library, 1965. Print.
“The Production Code of 1930.” Und.edu. U of North Dakota. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.
Reeve, Christopher. “Introduction.” Superman in the Seventies. New York: DC Comics, 2000. Print.
“Retcon.” Oxforddictionaries.com. Oxford UP. 2014. Web. 2 Feb. 2014.
Reynolds, Richard. Superheroes: A Modern Mythology. Jackson: U P of Mississippi, 1992. Print.
Rosenberg, Robin S. “Superman’s Personality: From Krypton, Kansas, or Both?.” The Psychology of Superheroes: An Unauthorized Exploration. Ed. Robin S. Rosenberg, PHD. BenBella Books, Inc.: Dallas, 2008. 29-49. Print
Sanderson, Vanderbilt. “The Comics.” Yank: The Army Weekly. 23 Nov. 1945. Oldmagazinearticles.com. Web. 19 Aug. 2014.
Secret Origins: The Story of DC Comics. Dir. Mac Carter, Perf. Ryan Reynolds, Neal Adams, Neil Gaiman, Paul Levitz. DC Entertainment. 2010. DVD.
Seigfried, Dr. Karl E. H. “The Norse Mythology Blog: Articles & Interviews on Myths and Religions.” Norsemyth.org. 19 July 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.
Sherlock, Karl. “Coming Out of the Closet Drama.” English 160-163 Drama Writing. Grossmont.edu. Grossmont College. 2008. Web. 23 Sept. 2014.
Sider, John. Interpreting the Parables: A Hermeneutical Guide to Their Meaning. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1995. Print.
Siegel, Jerry and Joe Shuster. “Resolution in San Monte.” The Superman Chronicles, Vol. 1. New York: DC Comics, 2006. 17-30. Print.
—. “Superman.” The Superman Chronicles, Vol. 1. New York: DC Comics, 2006. 194-200. Print.
—. “Superman, Championed of the Oppressed.” The Superman Chronicles, Vol. 1. New York: DC Comics, 2006. 3-16. Print.
—. “Wanted: Superman.” The Superman Chronicles, Vol. 1. New York: DC Comics, 2006. 111-24. Print.
— and Wayne Boring. “Superman’s Return to Krypton.” Superman in the Sixties. New York: DC Comics, 1999. 38-63. Print.
Smith, Matthew J. and Randy Duncan. Eds. Critical Approaches to Comics: Theories and Methods. New York: Routledge, 2012. Print.
Smith, Nicholas D. “Some Thoughts about the Origins of ‘Greek Ethics’.” The Journal of Ethics 5.1 (2001): 3-20. Print.
Superman: The Movie. Dir. Richard Donner. Perf. Christopher Reeve, Gene Hackman, Margot Kidder, Marlon Brando. Warner Home Video, 2013. Blu-ray.
Superman II. Dir. Richard Donner. Perf. Christopher Reeve, Gene Hackman, Margot Kidder, Marlon Brando. Warner Home Video, 2013. Blu-ray.
Thomas, Michael. “John Byrne: The Hidden Answers.” Comicbookresources.com. 22 Aug 2000. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.
Tilley, Carol L. “Seducing the Innocent: Fredric Wertham and the Falsifications that Helped Condemn Comics. Information and Culture 47.4 (2012): 383-413. Professional Development Collection. Web. 2 Sept. 2014.
Tye, Larry. Superman: The High-Flying History of America’s Most Enduring Hero. New York: Random House, 2012. Print.
Updike, John. “The Gesture.” The Best American Short Stories of the Century. John Updike and Katrina Kenison Eds. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co, 2000. 565-75. Print.
“US Elections: Barack Obama jokes he is Superman.” Telegraph.co.uk. The Telegraph. 17 October 2008. Web. 8 Nov. 2014.
“Values in American Culture.” Boston U. Bu.edu. Web. 3 Aug. 2014. Van Eemeren, F. H., R. Grootendorst, and T. Kruiger. The Study of Argumentation. New York: Irvington Publishers, 1984. Print.
Vassallo, Philip. “What is Virtue?” Philosophy Now 45 (2004): 7-8. Print.
Vonnegut, Kurt. The Sirens of Mars. New York: Dell, 1973. Print.
Waid, Mark. “The Real Truth about Superman: And the Rest of Us, Too.” Superheroes and Philosophy: Truth, Justice, and the The Socratic Way. Eds. Tom Morris and Matt Morris. Chicago: Open Court, 2005. 3-10. Print.
—. “Introduction.” Superman in the Fifties. New York: DC Comics, 2002. 5-8. Print.
—. “Introduction.”Superman in the Sixties. New York: DC Comics, 1999. 6-9. Print.
— and Alex Ross. Kingdom Come. New York: DC Comics, 2008. Print.
— and Leinil Francis Yu. Superman: Birthright. New York: DC Comics, 2005. Print.
Weldon, Glen. Superman: The Unauthorized Biography. New York: Wiley, 2013. Print.
Wertham, Fredric. Seduction of the Innocent. New York: Reinhart & Co Inc., 1954. Print.
White, Mark D. “Moral Judgment: The Power That Makes Superman Human.” Superman and Philosophy: What Would The Man of Steel Do?. Ed. Mark D. White. Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. 5-15. Print.
William, James D. Ed. An Introduction to Classical Rhetoric: Essential Readings. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009. Print.
Wolk, Douglas. Reading Comics: How Graphic Novels Work and What They Mean. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2007. Print.
Zebra, Michelle. “Odyssean Charisma and the Uses of Persuasion.” American Journal of Philology 130 (2009): 313-39. Print.
Works Cited Page Example